La historia

Tarentum

Tarentum


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Tarentum (Taras, Taranto moderna), ubicada en la costa sur de Apulia, Italia, fue una ciudad griega y luego romana. Controlando una gran área de Magna Graecia y encabezando la Liga Italiote, Tarentum, con su excelente puerto, fue una ciudad estratégicamente significativa a lo largo de la antigüedad. Por lo tanto, jugaría un papel fundamental en las guerras entre Pirro y Roma en el siglo III a. C. y nuevamente durante la Segunda Guerra Púnica cuando Aníbal ocupó el sur de Italia. Si bien hoy en día queda poco de los edificios del antiguo Tarento, el museo de la ciudad cuenta con una de las colecciones de cerámica griega más grandes del mundo y tiene muchos bronces finos, joyas de oro y mosaicos en el piso.

Panorama historico

Fundación

Tarentum, o Taras como se conoció por primera vez en griego, fue una colonia fundada por Esparta en el siglo VIII a. C. como parte de la ola de colonización griega de la región que se conocería como Magna Grecia. Según la tradición, la ciudad fue fundada en 706 a. C. por el héroe espartano Phalanthus. También se decía que los primeros colonos eran descendientes de mujeres espartanas e ilotas, los trabajadores agrícolas semiesclavizados que servían a sus amos espartanos. Sin embargo, la evidencia arqueológica apunta a un asentamiento neolítico mucho más temprano seguido de una presencia micénica en el área durante la Edad del Bronce.

Se han excavado bienes y monedas de Tarentum a lo largo de las costas del sur y el Adriático de Italia.

Una ciudad próspera

Situada en la costa y con el mejor puerto del golfo de Tarento, la ciudad prosperaría y se convertiría en uno de los centros comerciales más importantes de la región. El crecimiento de la ciudad la puso en conflicto con rivales locales como Metapontum en el otro extremo del golfo, pero Tarentum obtuvo importantes victorias sobre las tribus locales (los mesapianos y peucetianos) en 490 y 480 a. C. Estas batallas fueron conmemoradas en dedicatorias hechas en Delfos, aunque la paz no duró mucho ya que los mesapianos infligieron una seria derrota en Tarentum c. 475 a. C. en una batalla descrita por Herodoto como un "gran baño de sangre" (7.170.3). Una consecuencia de la debilidad militar de la ciudad fue el derrocamiento de la clase dominante, que fue reemplazada por un sistema de democracia limitada.

La fortuna de Tarentum mejoró a fines del siglo V a. C. y vio cómo la ciudad crecía a unas 530 hectáreas y aumentaba su territorio periférico, una expansión ayudada por el declive de Croton, su rival de larga data, más abajo en la costa del sur de Italia. Se han excavado bienes y monedas de Tarento (incluidos estaters de plata con su distintiva figura masculina montando un delfín) a lo largo de las costas del sur y el Adriático de Italia, lo que ilustra la prosperidad y la capacidad comercial de la ciudad. Los grandes santuarios de templos y cementerios también atestiguan el crecimiento de la ciudad durante la segunda mitad del siglo V a. C. La ciudad incluso fundó su propia colonia al oeste, Heraclea (Herakleia), en 433 a. C. Alrededor del 400 a. C., Heraclea se convirtió en la sede de la Liga Italiote, una asociación de ciudades-estado del sur de Italia, que estaba dominada por Tarentum.

¿Historia de amor?

Regístrese para recibir nuestro boletín semanal gratuito por correo electrónico.

Durante el siglo IV a. C., el gobierno de Tarento estuvo dominado por el pensamiento pitagórico (Pitágoras había establecido su escuela más abajo en la costa) y un hombre, en particular, Arquitas (c. 400-350 a. C.). El célebre matemático, pitagórico y estadista fue elegido general siete veces y probablemente forjó una alianza con Siracusa, la poderosa ciudad-estado de Sicilia, lo que permitió a Tarento expandirse aún más en un momento en que Dionisio I, el tirano de Siracusa, estaba ocupado saqueando ciudades. en el sur de Italia. En la segunda mitad del siglo IV a. C., Tarentum luchó por mantener su posición de dominio regional y enfrentarse a la amenaza cada vez mayor de los mesapios y lucanos mediante la contratación de ejércitos mercenarios, a menudo dirigidos por generales de Esparta y Epiro. Sin embargo, en el siglo III a. C., un enemigo mucho más peligroso acechaba en Magna Grecia: Roma.

Pirro y Roma

Afortunadamente para Tarentum, un poderoso aliado estaba disponible para salvarlos de la ocupación romana. El gran general y rey ​​de Epiro, Pirro, respondió a un llamado de ayuda de la ciudad cuando estaba bajo un inminente ataque romano en el 280 a. C. Pirro cruzó el Adriático con su ejército de 25.000 infantes y, empleando 20 elefantes de guerra y una fuerza de caballería superior de 3.000, ganó batallas contra los ejércitos romanos en Heraclea en 280 a. C. y Ausculum en 279 a. C. Las victorias, sin embargo, tuvieron un alto costo de vidas en ambos bandos y estas batallas no fueron decisivas, de ahí la expresión duradera "una victoria pírrica". Más importante para Tarento, Pirro pronto se vio obligado a abandonar la región y enfrentarse a la creciente amenaza de Cartago a sus intereses en Sicilia. Con el campo ahora despejado, Roma ocupó la ciudad en 270 a. C. y, a partir de entonces, Tarentum se convirtió en un aliado del poder dominante de la península.

Aníbal y Roma

La región se convirtió una vez más en el campo de batalla más importante del Mediterráneo cuando Aníbal invadió Italia en la Segunda Guerra Púnica (218-201 a. C.). Tarentum, como la mayoría de las ciudades del sur de Italia, se puso del lado de Cartago, pero la acrópolis y el puerto de Tarentum fueron, sin embargo, ocupados por Roma. Hannibal buscó desesperadamente un puerto desde el cual su ejército pudiera reabastecerse de África, pero no pudo tomar Tarentum y solo logró ocupar la ciudad exterior.

Durante el caos de las Guerras Púnicas se hizo un breve intento de recuperar la independencia de la ciudad en 213 a. C. cuando varios aristócratas derrocaron al gobierno. Fue una rebelión de corta duración y la ciudad volvió a estar completamente bajo control romano en 209 a. C. cuando fue capturada por Quinto Fabio Máximo. Cuando Scipio Africanus navegó a África y atacó a la propia Cartago en 203 a. C., Aníbal fue llamado de Italia para una última defensa de la patria. Tarento quedó a merced de Roma. Con sus tierras muy reducidas y gobernadas directamente por un pretor romano, la ciudad finalmente recuperó su estado anterior como aliado formal c. 180 a. C. Con la extensión de la vía Appia a Brundisium más al sureste, Tarentum perdió su posición como puerto principal en el sur de Italia.

Tarentum siguió siendo una ciudad modesta en la República Romana y en 122 a. C. se fundó la colonia de Neptunia, que se convertiría en parte de Tarentum propiamente dicho en 89 a. C. En el 59 a. C., se entregaron terrenos de Tarentum a los veteranos y la ciudad se romanizó cada vez más. La ciudad todavía producía productos para la exportación como lana, textiles, tinte púrpura de Tiro y alimentos. La evidencia epigráfica, la densidad de viviendas privadas y la presencia de varias villas grandes demuestran que la ciudad permaneció económicamente activa y relativamente próspera hasta bien entrado el período imperial con el emperador Nerón (r. 54-68 d.C.) otorgándole el estatus de colonia.

Antigüedad tardía

Tanto judíos como cristianos tuvieron una fuerte presencia en Tarentum desde el siglo I EC en adelante con un obispado establecido por el siglo IV EC o antes. Durante las invasiones góticas, la ciudad fue, a pesar de sus nuevas fortificaciones, ocupada por Totila, rey de los ostrogodos (r. 541-552 EC). El excelente puerto de la ciudad nunca dejó de atraer una presencia naval cuando surgió la oportunidad y Constans II, el emperador bizantino, envió una flota a Italia que desembarcó en Tarentum en 661 EC. En 668 d.C. Tarentum, todavía, como siempre, una adquisición estratégicamente útil para los invasores, entró en el período medieval con una explosión cuando el duque lombardo Romauld saqueó la ciudad.

Restos Arqueológicos

Tarentum alguna vez tuvo grandes complejos sagrados con templos impresionantes, pero debido al hecho de que la ciudad ha estado ocupada continuamente desde la antigüedad, la mayor parte de la arquitectura antigua a gran escala ha sido desmantelada y reutilizada en otros lugares en edificios más modernos. Una excepción son las dos enormes columnas que alguna vez pertenecieron a un templo arcaico dedicado a Poseidón. Estas columnas ahora se encuentran en la esquina de la plaza municipal (no en su ubicación original) y su enorme tamaño insinúa la enormidad de este templo ahora perdido.

Lo que le puede faltar a Tarentum en arquitectura se compensa con creces en la riqueza de los artefactos excavados en el sitio, el campo circundante y el puerto en sí. Muchos de los ejemplos más finos y mejor conservados de cerámica de figuras negras y cerámica de figuras rojas se han descubierto en el sitio con el magnífico museo MARTA de Taranto que posee una colección que rivaliza con la de Atenas y el Vaticano en alcance y arte. Las joyas de oro en forma de diademas, anillos, aretes y collares con una minuciosa y elaborada filigrana y decoración de granulación son otra rica fuente de evidencia que apunta a la habilidad de los trabajadores del metal de Tarento y la riqueza de la ciudad en los siglos IV-III a. C. Muchos de los artefactos provienen de tumbas y ninguno es más interesante que la Tumba del Atleta, una tumba de un vencedor de Tarentum en los Juegos Olímpicos completa con su disco, pesas y cabezas de jabalina y, conmovedoramente, el premio que ganó en vida. , el ánfora de figuras negras que se entrega a todos los ganadores.

Debe hacerse una mención especial a los numerosos mosaicos de suelo de las más grandiosas residencias romanas de la ciudad. El más grande y mejor conservado es un mosaico de finales del siglo II o principios del III d.C. con cuatro paneles principales que representan el secuestro de una ninfa y escenas adicionales de la caza de un leopardo, un león y un tigre. Los paneles laterales más pequeños muestran pájaros y frutas.

Otro espléndido mosaico de suelo tiene formas puramente geométricas y florales con un gran círculo central cuyo plegado velarium (cortina) se le da una calidad casi tridimensional mediante el uso de diversas sombras teselas piezas. Este mosaico perfectamente cuadrado data del siglo II d.C. y perteneció a una casa romana o domus en el centro de Tarento.

Finalmente, una de las piezas estrella de la antigua Taranto y que da la bienvenida a los visitantes del museo arqueológico es una estatua de bronce de Zeus. Citando a c. 530 a. C., la figura una vez sostuvo un rayo en una mano y un águila en la otra. La estatua se colocó originalmente en un capitel dórico de mármol y se encontraba en un santuario en la ciudad dedicado a la cabeza de los dioses olímpicos, un potente recordatorio de los orígenes griegos de una de las ciudades antiguas más ricas e influyentes del sur de Italia.


Tarentum Genealogy (en el condado de Allegheny, PA)

NOTA: Los registros adicionales que se aplican a Tarentum también se encuentran en las páginas del condado de Allegheny y Pennsylvania.

Registros de nacimiento de Tarento

Registros del cementerio de Tarentum

Cementerio del Sagrado Corazón Archivos web de la Generación de EE. UU.

Cementerio de San Clemente mil millones de tumbas

St. Clement Cemetery Archivos web de la Generación de EE. UU.

Registros del censo de Tarentum

Censo federal de Estados Unidos, 1790-1940 Family Search

Registros eclesiásticos de Tarentum

Directorios de la ciudad de Tarentum

Registros de defunción de Tarentum

Registros de inmigración de Tarentum

Registros de la tierra de Tarentum

Registros de mapas de Tarento

Mapa de Tarentum, condado de Allegheny, Pennsylvania, 1901. Biblioteca del Congreso

Mapa de seguros contra incendios de Sanborn de Tarentum, condado de Allegheny, Pensilvania, febrero de 1897 Biblioteca del Congreso

Mapa de seguros contra incendios de Sanborn de Tarentum, condado de Allegheny, Pensilvania, octubre de 1891 Biblioteca del Congreso

Registros de matrimonio de Tarentum

Periódicos y obituarios de Tarentum

Periódicos sin conexión para Tarentum

Según el Directorio de periódicos de EE. UU., Se imprimieron los siguientes periódicos, por lo que es posible que haya copias en papel o microfilm disponibles. Para obtener más información sobre cómo localizar periódicos sin conexión, consulte nuestro artículo sobre cómo localizar periódicos sin conexión.

Tiempos de Allegheny Valley. (Tarentum, Allegheny Co., Pensilvania) 1881-1888

Telegrama vespertino. (Tarento, Pensilvania) 1914-1923

Telegrama de Tarentum. (Tarento, Pensilvania) 1896-1914

Valley Daily News. (Tarentum, Pensilvania) 1904-1968

Registros de sucesiones de Tarentum

Registros escolares de Tarentum

Registros de impuestos de Tarentum

¿Adiciones o correcciones a esta página? Agradecemos sus sugerencias a través de nuestra página Contáctenos


Línea de tiempo de la historia

(Valley New Dispatch - 23 de julio de 1995)

1734 - Los indios Shawnee habitan el valle de Allegheny.

1795 - West Deer, East Deer, Frazer, Springdale, Springdale Township, Cheswick, Fawn, Tarentum, Brackenridge, Harrison, conocido como Deer Township.

1805 & # 8211 Carretera de Sharpsburg a Freeport expuesta petróleo descubierto.

1821 & # 8211 Se construye la casa Burtner.

1826 & # 8211 Comienza la construcción del canal a través del Valle.

1829 & # 8211 Canal comienza a operar en Tarentum.

1836 & # 8211 Deer Township se dividió en East y West Deer West Deer permanece hoy como era.

1842 & # 8211 Tarentum se retira de East Deer.

1852 & # 8211 Primera fila de casas construidas en Federal Street por Penn Salt Manufacturing Co. para empleados.

1853 & # 8211 Canal llenado para hacer un lecho para las vías del tren La familia Harrison se instaló sobre Natrona.

1858 & # 8211 Fawn se retira de East Deer, pero todavía contiene a los modernos Harrison y Brackenridge.

1860 & # 8211 800 hombres empleados por Penn Salt Natrona La población alcanza los 1.870.

1862 & # 8211 Más de 200 hombres de Natrona se alistan para servir en el Ejército de la Unión.

1863 & # 8211 Harrison se separa de Fawn el 7 de febrero.

1868 & # 8211 La población de Harrison se informó en 3,000.

1880 & # 8211 Construcción de la mansión Potts.

1888 & # 8211 72 horas a la semana, escala salarial de $ 1 al día en Penn Salt.

1889 & # 8211 West Penn Press organizado y ubicado en North Canal Street, imprime Natrona News.

1895 & # 8211 El primer carro pasa por Natrona, Tarentum Traction Company.

1896 & # 8211 Incendio destruye la refinería de metales en Penn Salt Fidelity Glass Company comienza en Brackenridge.

1901 & # 8211 Brackenridge se separa de Harrison First National Bank of Natrona organizado, ubicado en Federal Street.

1901 & # 8211 Allegheny Iron and Steel comienza a operar.

1902 & # 8211 Pond Street School construida.

1904 & # 8211 Valley Daily News organizado por Charles Howe.

1906 & # 8211 Hospital del Valle organizado y opera en West Tarentum.

1907 & # 8211 Natrona Se formó la Compañía de Bomberos Voluntarios No. 1.

1907 & # 8211 Las horas de trabajo de la industria del acero son días de 12 horas, 24 horas cada segundo domingo.

1918 & # 8211 El fuego destruye Penn Salt La epidemia de gripe mata a cientos.

1920 & # 8211 Primer camión de bomberos comprado por Natrona Fire Company por $ 12,500 primeros 40 pies de concreto terminados en Natrona Dam.

1921 & # 8211 El trabajo en la presa de Natrona se detuvo debido a la falta de dinero Se abre la escuela secundaria Harbrack, se abren 375 escalones de madera construidos desde Natrona hasta la cima de la colina hasta la escuela Citizens Bank of Natrona.

1923 & # 8211 Sistema sanitario del municipio de Harrison parcialmente operativo.

1927 & # 8211 Lock No, 4 en Allegheny River se abre oficialmente al tráfico fluvial general. El nombre de la oficina de correos de Birdville se cambió a la oficina de correos de Natrona Heights.

1929 & # 8211 Construcción de la escuela Birdville.

1930 & # 8211 Allegheny Steel Company se fusiona con West Penn Steel Company. Primera recogida de correo aéreo en Natrona Air Field. Natrona Citizens National Bank se fusiona con First National Bank of Natrona.

1931 & # 8211 Recaudación de impuestos del municipio de Harrison en 7.5 millones.

1940 & # 8211 Los autobuses se apoderan de la línea de tranvía El alcantarillado pluvial de Natrona se autoriza a correr desde la colina a través de las calles Chestnut y Garfield por el callejón hasta el río.


Nick J. Petrishen, dueño de Nick Chevrolet en Tarentum, muere a los 77 años

Los boletines de correo electrónico diarios y semanales de TribLIVE brindan las noticias que desea y la información que necesita, directamente en su bandeja de entrada.

La noche antes de sufrir un derrame cerebral que finalmente le quitaría la vida, Nick Petrishen Jr.fue con su único hijo a ver la película & ldquoFord v Ferrari & rdquo.

"Realmente lo disfrutó todo el tiempo", dijo su hijo Nick S. Petrishen, de 50 años, de Natrona Heights. & ldquoLa parte irónica es que el Chevy local tiene dos golpes después de la película & lsquoFord v Ferrari & rsquo. & rdquo

Nick J. Petrishen Jr., propietario, operador y vicepresidente de Nick Chevrolet en Tarentum durante casi 60 años, murió en su casa el 29 de noviembre. Tenía 77 años.

Un personaje más grande que la vida conocido por hacerse amigo de las personas que patrocinaban su concesionario y su generosidad al dar a las causas de la comunidad, Petrishen también era un entusiasta de los automóviles que construía camionetas, que es una camioneta con una barra de empuje en la parte delantera para obtener un arrancó el coche de carreras.

También asistió regularmente a carreras desde Lernerville Speedway en Sarver hasta Daytona Beach, Florida.

& ldquoLe gustaban los viejos muscle cars, cualquier cosa que pudiera ir rápido. Dale Earnhardt (Sr.) era su favorito ”, dijo Petrishen. & ldquoEra cercano a muchos de los conductores locales. Después de que tuvo sus (iniciales) accidentes cerebrovasculares, estaba en una silla de ruedas, y cada vez que lo llevaba, le anunciaban a la multitud que estaba presente. & Rdquo

"Acabamos de llevarlo a una carrera en Lernerville, y varios de los pilotos se acercaron antes de la carrera y se sentaron con él y hablaron con él en las gradas", dijo su hija Michele Petrishen, de 54 años, de Bemus Point, Nueva York.

Nick Petrishen Jr., al igual que sus cuatro hermanas y un hermano, comenzó a trabajar en el negocio de su familia y rsquos en Power City Motors en Springdale cuando era adolescente. Tenía pocas opciones en el asunto, pero estaba emocionado de hacerlo de todos modos, instalándose como vendedor.

"Definitivamente nació y se crió para esto", dijo su hijo Nick S. Petrishen. "Solía ​​decirle a todo el mundo que tenía el mejor trabajo del mundo porque le pagaron toda su vida a (BS) como vendedor de coches".

El Sr. Petrishen tenía un gran corazón y le gustaba ayudar a otros, apoyando financieramente el atletismo de la escuela secundaria y los equipos de las ligas menores. También brindó apoyo a los departamentos de policía y bomberos locales y otras organizaciones benéficas.

& ldquoDespués de su primer derrame cerebral, una de las historias que uno de los chicos de EMS compartió conmigo en el hospital fue: & lsquoY su papá donó a los servicios de ambulancia pero no lo hizo por correo, lo hizo personalmente, & rsquo & # 8201 & rdquo, dijo Michele Petrishen. & ldquo Él personalmente les entregaría un cheque. & rdquo

Sus hijos estuvieron de acuerdo en que su padre tenía un gran sentido del humor y eso lo ayudó a sobrevivir a sus dos primeros golpes.

Nick S. Petrishen recordó una historia sobre cómo su padre vistió un maniquí de tamaño natural del Sr. Goodwrench en el concesionario con un sombrero, gafas, una pistola falsa y un cigarrillo encendido. Eso asustó a un trabajador de la limpieza en el concesionario.

"Y la historia dice que se quedó allí con las manos en el aire durante unos cinco minutos hasta que el cigarrillo se le cayó de la boca", dijo Nick S. Petrishen.

Otra hija, Bridgette Ladie, de 51 años, del municipio de Buffalo, recordó haber llevado a su padre a un concierto de Frankie Valli y Four Seasons. Dijo que su padre siempre escuchaba a los viejos.

& ldquoRecuerdo estar con mi papá conduciendo un Caprice descapotable blanco, y yo estaba en el asiento delantero con la cabeza en su regazo, y con la capota bajada, escuchando viejas. Y me quedaría dormido ”, dijo.

Al Sr. Petrishen le sobreviven su esposa de 55 años, Loretta Susan (Szymkowiak) Hijos de Petrishen, Michele Petrishen de Bemus Point, NY, Bridgette Ladie de Buffalo Township, y Nick S. Petrishen de Natrona Heights, tres nietos y cuatro bisnietos y hermanos Carol Ann Koprivnikar de Natrona Heights, Rose Mary Koprivnikar de Natrona Heights, Janice Langham de Lower Burrell, John J. Petrishen de Lower Burrell y Sue Zaleski de Natrona Heights.

Paul Guggenheimer es redactor de Tribune-Review. Puede contactar a Paul al 724-226-7706 o [email protected]

Apoya al periodismo local y ayúdanos a seguir cubriendo las historias que te importan a ti y a tu comunidad.

Los boletines informativos por correo electrónico diarios y semanales de TribLIVE brindan las noticias que desea y la información que necesita, directamente en su bandeja de entrada.


Fundación de la historia de Tarento para conmemorar el 35 aniversario

Los boletines de correo electrónico diarios y semanales de TribLIVE brindan las noticias que desea y la información que necesita, directamente en su bandeja de entrada.

Para conmemorar los 35 años desde su fundación, la Fundación de Historia y Monumentos de Tarentum Inc. ofrecerá una cena el 30 de mayo.

La fundación, autorizada e incorporada el 11 de mayo de 1973, investiga y compila la historia local, dijo el director ejecutivo de la fundación, Robert Lucas. Dijo que la fundación es importante porque proporciona "una visión completa de la historia" del área.

El 11 de mayo también es la fecha de nacimiento de Henry Marie Brackenridge, quien fundó Tarentum. La ciudad fue diseñada en 1829, dijo Lucas. Aunque los primeros colonos comenzaron a mudarse al Valle en la década de 1790, Lucas dijo que no se consideró a salvo de las masacres de indios hasta 1796.

La fundación publica una revista trimestral, el Tarentum Times, que se envía a sus miembros. Cindy Homburg, miembro de la junta directiva, dijo que cada número contiene "diferentes historias del viejo Tarentum y fotografías del viejo Tarentum".

La fundación también recopila hojas sueltas de periódicos, que eventualmente se convierten en microfilmes. También mantiene archivos genealógicos, coloca placas históricas en los edificios y recopila fotografías del área, dijo Lucas.

Lucas dijo que es importante que tanto los residentes como los miembros de la fundación coloquen una identificación en la parte posterior de las fotografías. Los residentes pueden donar materiales históricos, incluidas fotografías, a la fundación poniéndose en contacto con Lucas.

La fundación recolecta materiales históricos, pero no recolecta artefactos, dijo Lucas.

"Principalmente, nos enfocamos en la historia y la gente, y sus contribuciones en el noreste del condado de Allegheny", dijo.

Lucas, un residente de Tarentum, dijo que los miembros de la fundación están dispersos por todo el país. Más de 700 personas se han unido desde 1973, y algunas viven en lugares tan lejanos como Canadá, Alaska, Hawai y California, dijo.

Tanto los miembros como el público están invitados a la cena, que será atendida por Robin & amp Company de Freeport. Esta será la primera cena que la fundación realiza en cinco años.

Después de la cena, se mostrará una presentación de diapositivas de Tarentum hace 100 años. Se exhibirán recuerdos y postales de Homburg.

La fundación no es propietaria de la propiedad. Lucas maneja las finanzas de la fundación desde su oficina en casa, y las reuniones de la junta se llevan a cabo en la Primera Iglesia Presbiteriana Unida, 913 Lock St. Los miembros de la Fundación eligen a los miembros de la junta.

"Es una organización divertida y divertida", dijo Homburg, "y es excelente para las personas que aman la historia y quieren preservarla". Información adicional:

Subiendo

Quién: Fundación de Historia y Monumentos de Tarentum Inc.

Qué: Cena para conmemorar el 35 aniversario de la fundación.

Dónde: Primera Iglesia Presbiteriana Unida, 913 Lock St., Tarentum.

Detalles: los boletos cuestan $ 10 y deben comprarse antes de hoy.

Están disponibles en las ubicaciones de Harrison y Tarentum de la Biblioteca Comunitaria de Allegheny Valley.

Los boletos también están disponibles enviando un cheque por correo hoy a la Fundación de Historia y Monumentos de Tarentum en P.O. Box 1776 Tarentum, PA 15084. Las solicitudes enviadas por correo deben recibirse antes del martes. Información adicional:

Como unirse

Aquellos interesados ​​en unirse pueden enviar por correo su cuota anual de membresía de $ 10 a Tarentum History and Monumentos Foundation Inc. en P.O. Box 1776 Tarentum, PA 15084.

Apoya al periodismo local y ayúdanos a seguir cubriendo las historias que te interesan a ti y a tu comunidad.

Los boletines de correo electrónico diarios y semanales de TribLIVE brindan las noticias que desea y la información que necesita, directamente en su bandeja de entrada.


Recorrido por los monumentos históricos de Tarentum para conmemorar el año 175 del distrito

Admisión: Gratis, pero se recomienda reservar. Llame al 724-612-0076. Un segundo recorrido en autobús comenzará a la 1 p.m. si las reservas lo ameritan.

Los boletines de correo electrónico diarios y semanales de TribLIVE brindan las noticias que desea y la información que necesita, directamente en su bandeja de entrada.

Tarentum ha acumulado muchos hitos en sus 175 años de historia.

Y el sábado, esos puntos de referencia tendrán historias que contar.

Un recorrido en autobús por 15 monumentos históricos de Tarentum comenzará a las 10 a.m. en la choza de refrigerios de Riverview Park.

La anfitriona e historiadora local Cindy Homburg guiará a quienes emprendan el viaje a los puntos de referencia y narrará los antecedentes de cada uno.

"El recorrido durará aproximadamente dos horas", dijo Homburg. "Podremos entrar en algunos, pero no en todos, los puntos de referencia".

Una parada será la Malarkey House en East 10th Avenue, construida en 1892 y ahora la sede de la oficina de abogados Paz, Paz y Paz.

"Fue la funeraria Walters desde la década de 1940 hasta que nuestra familia la compró en el '84", dijo el abogado John Paz. "Sabía que era un edificio muy antiguo. No lo compramos por su historia, pero lo hemos restaurado".

Paz instaló estampados de papel tapiz históricos al estilo Willliamsburg, cerró el porche delantero y colocó muebles para complementar la arquitectura de la era del Imperio francés.

El antiguo comedor ha sido rehabilitado como sala de conferencias.

"Habría un botón para llamar a la criada", dijo Paz. "Había un salón de baile en el tercer piso, y había una escalera hasta el techo".

El ladrillo Malarkey House fue proporcionado por McFetridge Brick Co. de Creighton.

"El lugar es precioso", dijo Homburg. "Después de que la familia Malarkey lo construyó, se fueron al oeste, pero regresaron a Tarentum".

Otros edificios con placas de designación de hitos históricos incluyen el Pollock Masonic Lodge en Lock Street, construido en 1907.

La logia lleva el nombre del Gran Maestro Adjunto de Distrito Alexander M. Pollock.

"Es el único hito que todavía se usa por la razón por la que fue construido", dijo Homburg.

Uno de los otros puntos de referencia es el Lardin House Hotel, ubicado en la esquina de Fourth Avenue y Wood Street.

Uno de los primeros hoteles de Tarentum, fue construido en 1864 por Daniel Lardin.

Entre los invitados notables se encontraban el presidente William Howard Taft, el hombre de la frontera Kit Carson y la defensora de la templanza Carrie Nation, quienes dieron una conferencia a una audiencia en la Iglesia Metodista Libre de Tarentum sobre los pecados del alcohol y el tabaquismo.

John B. Ford, fundador de la industria estadounidense del vidrio plano y del distrito de Ford City, se quedó en Lardin House una vez que descubrió que la arena en las orillas del río Allegheny era propicia para la fabricación de vidrio.

Otras paradas en el recorrido incluirán la estación de tren de Tarentum, el antiguo granero de tranvías y autobuses que ahora es el hogar de Highland Tire, el antiguo YMCA, la escuela primaria Grandview, anteriormente Tarentum High School, la farmacia Chapman, esquina de Lock y Fifth, el Kennedy Bank. en Lock and Fifth, la Casa Humes en East Ninth, la Casa Kennedy en Lock Street, el monumento de Riverview Park, el fortín donde Bull Creek se encuentra con el río Allegheny y la designación histórica del fundador de Tarentum, el juez Henry Marie Brackenridge, en el First Commonwealth Bank, esquina de East Sixth y Corbet.

El recorrido es parte de la celebración del 175 aniversario de Tarentum.

George Guido es un escritor independiente.

Apoya al periodismo local y ayúdanos a seguir cubriendo las historias que te importan a ti y a tu comunidad.


Acerca de la Sociedad Histórica Alle-Kiski

La Sociedad Histórica Alle-Kiski, ubicada en Tarentum, PA, es una organización local dedicada a estudiar y preservar la historia de Tarentum. La Sociedad Histórica fomenta la apreciación del pasado, con énfasis en la historia local. Además de recolectar y preservar artefactos históricos, fotografías e historias personales, la Sociedad Histórica lleva a cabo investigaciones sobre las familias y negocios locales del condado de Allegheny, que presentan al público a través de exhibiciones. La Sociedad Histórica también proporciona registros históricos públicos.


Iglesia Católica Bizantina de los Santos Pedro y Pablo Tarentum, PA

En la fecha de nacimiento de SS. Peter and Paul Church, 3 de julio de 1918, unas 75 familias de origen ruso y húngaro se reunieron en el distrito de Brackenridge. La parroquia se incorporó legalmente el 19 de julio de 1918. Poco después, la parroquia compró una iglesia y una casa en Mile Lock Lane en Brackenridge.

El primer párroco residente, el padre Gabriel Chopey, fue nombrado en 1921. La parroquia floreció. Se organizaron varios grupos parroquiales, incluidas las sociedades del altar y el rosario, la sociedad coral y el club de hombres # 8217s. A medida que la congregación creció, decidieron transferir el sitio de la iglesia de Brackenridge a West Tarentum. En 1929, la parroquia compró St. Peter & # 8217s Hall y su propiedad contigua en West Eighth Avenue en Tarentum. Convirtieron este edificio en la iglesia parroquial que sirvió a la parroquia durante los siguientes 25 años.

En 1952, el obispo Daniel Ivancho nombró al padre Michael G. Pipik como pastor con instrucciones de construir una nueva iglesia en un área apropiada. Después de una larga búsqueda, la parroquia tuvo la suerte de obtener Smith Estate en 339 East Tenth Avenue y la propiedad adyacente. El primer proyecto fue la remodelación de la casa, que se convirtió en la rectoría parroquial. Fue bendecido el 15 de noviembre de 1953.

La construcción de la nueva iglesia se inició el 4 de abril de 1954. La iglesia fue solemnemente dedicada por el obispo Nicholas Elko el 6 de mayo de 1956. El obispo Elko regresó a la iglesia el 8 de junio de 1958 para bendecir las vidrieras, los murales y santuarios de mármol. El 4 de mayo de 1969 la parroquia celebró su 50 aniversario cuando el obispo Stephen J. Kocisko (en ese momento arzobispo designado de la Arqueparquía recién creada) bendijo la nueva Mesa Santa de mármol (altar) de la iglesia.

Los miembros de la parroquia residen en los cuatro condados de Allegheny Valley: los condados de Allegheny, Armstrong, Butler y Westmoreland. El complejo parroquial está ubicado a lo largo de East Tenth Avenue, que es la vía principal que conecta Natrona Heights, Brackenridge y Tarentum. Está a menos de una cuadra de Tarentum Bridge Road (antes Salida 14 de la autopista Route 28 Allegheny Valley), que cruza el río Allegheny hasta New Kensington, Lower Burrell y Arnold. La iglesia es visible tanto desde las rampas de salida de la Ruta 28 como desde el Puente Tarentum al cruzar desde New Kensington.

En los últimos años, se ha realizado un esfuerzo sustancial para mantener y actualizar las propiedades de la parroquia. Se han instalado nuevos sistemas de calefacción y aire acondicionado en la iglesia y la rectoría. En 1998 se instaló una nueva alfombra en la iglesia y se colocaron vidrios protectores en todas las vidrieras. La rectoría tiene techo, baños y suelo nuevos.

SS. La iglesia de San Pedro y San Pablo, con sus lados de piedra arenisca de colores y techo de pizarra roja, sigue siendo una joya del vecindario y la comunidad.


Diccionario de geografía griega y romana (1854) William Smith, LLD, Ed.

Ocultar barra de exploración Su posición actual en el texto está marcada en azul. Haga clic en cualquier parte de la línea para saltar a otra posición:

Este texto es parte de:
Ver texto fragmentado por:
Tabla de contenido:

TARENTUM

Tarentum era una ciudad griega, una colonia de Esparta, fundada pocos años después de las dos colonias aqueas de Sybaris y Crotona. Las circunstancias que llevaron a su fundación están relacionadas con alguna variación de Antíoco y Éforo (ambos citados por Estrabón), pero ambos autores coinciden en el hecho principal de que los colonos eran un cuerpo de hombres jóvenes, nacidos durante la Primera Guerra Mesenia en circunstancias que arrojaron sobre su nacimiento una mancha de ilegitimidad, por lo que fueron tratados con desprecio por los demás ciudadanos y después de un intento fallido de crear una revolución en Esparta, decidieron emigrar en un cuerpo bajo un líder llamado Phalanthus. Se distinguieron por el epíteto de Partheniae, en alusión a su origen. Phalanthus, que aparentemente era él mismo uno de la clase despreciada y había sido el jefe de los conspiradores en Esparta, después de consultar el oráculo de Delfos, se convirtió en el líder y fundador de la nueva colonia. (Antíoco, ap. Strab. vi. p.278 Éforo, Ib. pag. 279 Serv. ad Aen. 3.551 Diod. 15,66 Justin, 3.4 Scymn. Ch. 332 .) Tanto Antíoco como Éforo los representan como estableciéndose sin dificultad en el lugar, y recibidos de manera amistosa por los nativos y esto es mucho más probable que la declaración de Pausanias, según la cual se encontraban en constante guerra y era no fue sino hasta después de una larga lucha que pudieron hacerse dueños de Tarento. ( Paus. 10.10.6 .) El mismo autor representa esa ciudad como antes ocupada por las tribus indígenas, y ya como una ciudad grande y poderosa, pero esto es altamente improbable. The name, however, is probably of native origin, and seems to have been derived front that of the small river or stream which always continued to be known as the Taras though, as usual, the Greeks derived it from an eponymous hero named Taras, who was represented as a son of Neptune and a nymph of the country. (Paus. Ib. § 8.) It is certain that the hero Taras continued to be an object of special worship at Tarentum, while Phalanthus, who was revered as their Oekist, was frequently associated with him, and gradually became the subject of many legends of a very mythical character, in some of which he appears to have been confounded with Taras himself. ( Paus. 10.10 . § § 6--8, 13.10 Serv. ad Aen. l.c.) Nevertheless, there is no reason to doubt the historical character of Phalanthus, or the Lacedaemonian origin of Tarentum, which was confirmed by numerous local names and religious observances still retained there down to a very late period. (Pol. 8.30, 35.) The Roman poets also abound in allusions to this origin of the Tarentines. ( Hor. Carm. 3.5.56 , 2.6. 11 Ovid. Reunió. 15.50, &c.) The date of the foundation of Tarentum is given by Hieronymus as B.C. 708, and this, which is in accordance with the circumstances related in connection with it, is probably correct, though no other author has mentioned the precise date. (Hieron. Chron. ad Ol. xviii.)

The history of Tarentum, for the first two centuries of its existence, is, like that of most other cities of Magna Graecia, almost wholly unknown. But the main fact is well attested that it attained to great power and prosperity, though apparently at first overshadowed by the superior power of the Achaean cities, so that it was not till a later period that it assumed the predominant position among the cities of Magna Graecia, which it ultimately attained. There can be no doubt that it owed this prosperity mainly to the natural advantages of its situation. ( Scymn. Ch. 332 - 336 Strab. vi. p.278 .) Though its territory was not so fertile, or so well adapted for the growth of grain as those of Metapontum and Siris, it was admirably suited for the growth of olives, and its pastures produced wool of the finest quality, while its port, or inner sea as it was called, abounded in shell-fish of all descriptions, among which the Murex, which produced the celebrated purple dye, was the most important and valuable. But it was especially the excellence of its port to which Tarentum owed its rapid rise to opulence and power. This was not only landlocked and secure, but was the only safe harbour of any extent on the whole shores of the Tarentine gulf and as neither Brundusium nor Hydruntum, on the opposite side of the Messapian peninsula, had as yet attained to any eminence, or fallen into the hands of a seafaring people, the port of Tarentum became the chief emporium for the commerce of all this part of Italy. (Pol. 10.1 Flor. 1.18.3 .) The story of Arion, as related by Herodotus ( 1.24 ) indicates the existence of extensive commercial relations with Corinth and other cities of Greece as early as the reign of Periander, B.C. 625--585.

As the Tarentines gradually extended their power over the adjoining territories, they naturally came into frequent collision with the native tribes of the interior,--the Messapians and Peucetians and the first events of their history recorded to us relate to their wars with these nations. Their offerings at Delphi noticed by Pausanias ( 10.10.6 , 13.10 ), recorded victories over both these nations, in one of which it appears that Opis, making of the Iapygians, who had come to the assistance of the Peucetians, was slain but we have no knowledge of the dates or circumstances of these battles. It would appear, however, that the Tarentines were continually gaining ground, and making themselves masters of the Messapian towns one after the other, until their progress was checked by a great disaster, their own forces, together with those of the Rhegians, who had been sent to their assistance, being totally defeated by the barbarians with great slaughter. ( Hdt. 7.170 Diod. 11.52 .). So heavy was their [p. 2.1096] loss that Herodotus, without stating the numbers, says it was the greatest slaughter of Greeks that had occurred up to his time. The loss seems to have fallen especially upon the nobles and wealthier citizens, so that it became the occasion of a political revolution, and the government, which had previously been an aristocracy, became thenceforth a pure democracy. (Arist. Pol. 5.3.) Of the internal condition and constitution of Tarentum previously to this time, we know scarcely anything, but it seems probable that its institutions were at first copied from those of the parent city of Sparta. Aristotle speaks of its government as a πολίτεια, in the sense of a mixed government or commonwealth while Herodotus incidentally notices a king of Tarentum (3.156), not long before the Persian War, who was doubtless a king after the Spartan model. The institutions of a democratic tendency noticed with commendation by Aristotle ( Aristot. Pol. 6.5 ) probably belong to the later and democratic period of the constitution. We hear but little also of Tarentum in connection with the revolutions arising out of the influence exercised by the Pythagoreans: that sect had apparently not established itself so strongly there as in the Achaean cities though many Tarentines are enumerated among the disciples of Pythagoras, and it is clear that the city had not altogether escaped their influence. (Iambl. Vit. Pyth. 262, 266 Porphyr. Vit. Pyth. 56.)

The defeat of the Tarentines by the Messapians, which is referred by Diodorus to B.C. 473 ( Diod. 11.52 ), is the first event in the history of Tarentum to which we can assign a definite date. Great as that blow may have been, it did not produce any permanent effect in checking the progress of the city, which still appears as one of the most flourishing in Magna Graecia. We next hear of the Tarentines as interfering to prevent the Thurians, who had been recently established in Italy, from making themselves masters of the district of the Siritis. On what grounds the Tarentines could lay claim to this district, which was separated from them by the intervening territory of Metapontum, we are not informed but they carried on war for some time against the Thurians, who were supported by the Spartan exile Cleandridas until at length the dispute was terminated by a compromise, and a new colony named Heracleia was founded in the contested territory (B.C. 432), in which the citizens of both states participated, but it was agreed that it should be considered as a colony of Tarentum. (Antioch. ap. Strab. vi. p.264 Diod. 12.23 , 36 .) At the time of the Athenian expedition to Sicily, the Tarentines kept aloof from the contest, and contented themselves with refusing all supplies and assistance to the Athenian fleet ( Thuc. 6.44 ), while they afforded shelter to the Corinthian and Laconian ships under Gylippus (Ib. 104), but they did not even prevent the second fleet under Demosthenes and Eurymedon from touching at the islands of the Choerades, immediately opposite to the entrance of their harbour, and taking on board some auxiliaries furnished by the Messapians. (Id. 7.33.)

Another long interval now elapses, during which the history of Tarentum is to us almost a blank yet the few notices we hear of the city represent it as in a state of great prosperity. We are told that at one time (apparently about 380--360 B.C.) Archytas, the Pythagorean philosopher, exercised a paramount influence over the government, and filled the office of Strategus or general no less than seven times, though it was prohibited by law to hold it more than once and was successful in every campaign. ( D. L. 8.4 . § § 79--82.) It is evident, therefore, that the Tarentines were far from enjoying unbroken peace. The hostilities alluded to were probably but a renewal of their old warfare with the Messapians but the security of the Greek cities in Italy was now menaced by two more formidable foes, Dionysius of Syracuse in the south, and the Lucanians on the north and west. The Tarentines, indeed seem to have at first looked upon both dangers with comparative indifference: their remote position secured them from the immediate brunt of the attack, and it is even doubtful whether they at first joined in the general league of the Greek cities to resist the danger which threatened them. Meanwhile, the calamities which befel the more southern cities, the destruction of some by Dionysius, and the humiliation of others, tended only to raise Tarentum in comparison, while that city itself enjoyed an immunity from all hostile attacks and it seems certain that it was at this period that Tarentum first rose to the preponderating position among the Greek cities in Italy, which it thenceforth enjoyed without a rival. It was apparently as an acknowledgment of that superiority, that when Tarentum had joined the confederacy of the Greek cities, the place of meeting of their congress was fixed at the Tarentine colony of Heracleia. ( Strab. vi. p.280 .)

It was impossible for the Tarentines any longer to keep aloof from the contest with the Lucanians, whose formidable power was now beginning to threaten all the cities in Magna Graecia and they now appear as taking a leading part in opposing the progress of those barbarians. But they were not content with their own resources, and called in successively to their assistance several foreign leaders and generals of renown. The first of these was the Spartan king Archidamus, who crossed over into Italy with a considerable force. Of his operations there we have no account, but he appears to have carried on the war for some years, as Diodorus places his first landing in Italy in B.C. 346, while the battle in which he was defeated and slain was not fought till the same time as that of Chaeroneia, B.C. 338. ( Diod. 16.63 , 88 .) This action, in which Archidamus himself, and almost all the troops which he had brought with him from Greece perished, was fought (as we are told), not with the Lucanians, but with the Messapians, in the neighbourlhood of Manduria, only 24 miles from Tarentum (Plut. Agis. 3 Paus. 3.10.5 Diod. l.c.) but there can be no doubt, however, that both nations were united, and that the Lucanians lent their support to the Messapians, as the old enemies of Tarentum. Henceforth, indeed, we find both names continually united. A few years after the death of Archidamus, Alexander, king of Epirus, was invited by the Tarentines, and landed in Italy, B.C. 332. The operations of his successive campaigns, which were continued till B.C. 326, are very imperfectly known to us, but he appears to have first turned his arms against the Messapians, and compelled them to conclude a peace with the Tarentines, before he proceeded to make war upon the Lucanians and Bruttians. But his arms were attended with considerable success in this quarter also: he defeated the Samnites and Lucanians in a great battle near Paestum, and penetrated into the heart of the Bruttian [p. 2.1097] territory. Meanwhile, however, he had quarrelled with his allies the Tarentines, so that he turned against them, took their colony of Heracleia, and endeavoured to transfer the congress of the Greek cities from thence to a place on the river Acalandrus, in the territory of Thurii. ( Strab. vi. p.280 Liv. 8.24 Solo. 12.2 .) Hence his death, in B.C. 226, only liberated the Tarentines from an enemy instead of depriving them of an ally. They appear from this time to have either remained tranquil or carried on the contest single-handed, till B.C. 303, when we find them again invoking foreign assistance, and, as on a former occasion, sending to Sparta for aid. This was again furnished them, and a large army of mercenaries landed at Tarentum under Cleonymus, the uncle of the Spartan king. But though he compelled the Messapians and Lucanians to sue for peace, Cleonymus soon alienated the minds of his Greek allies by his arrogance and luxurious habits, and became the object of general hatred before he quitted Italy. ( Diod. 20.104 .) According to Strabo, the Tarentines subsequently called in the assistance of Agathocles ( Strab. vi. p.280 ) but we find no mention of this elsewhere, and Diodorus tells us that he concluded an alliance with the Iapygians and Peucetians, which could hardly have been done with favourable intentions towards Tarentum. (Diod. xxi. p. 490.)

Not long after this the Tarentines first came into collision with a more formidable foe than their neighbours, the Messapians and Lucanians. The wars of the Romans with the Samnites, in which the descendants of the latter people, the Apulians and Lucanians, were from time to time involved, had rendered the name and power of Rome familiar to the Greek cities on the Tarentine gulf and coast of the Adriatic, though their arms were not carried into that part of Italy till about B.C. 283, when they rendered assistance to the Thurians against the Lucanians [THURII]. But long before this, as early as the commencement of the Second Samnite War (B.C. 326), the Tarentines are mentioned in Roman history as supporting the Neapolitans with promises of succour, which, however, they never sent and afterwards exciting the Lucanians to war against the Romans. ( Liv. 8.27 .) Again, in B.C. 321 we are told that they sent a haughty embassy to command the Samnites and Romans to desist from hostilities, and threatened to declare war on whichever party refused to obey. (Id. 9.14.) But on this occasion also they did not put their threat in execution. At a subsequent period, probably about B.C. 303 (Arnold's Roma, vol. ii. p. 315), the Tarentines concluded a treaty with Rome, by which it was stipulated that no Roman ships of war should pass the Lacinian cape. (Appian, Samnit. 7.) It was therefore a direct breach of this treaty when, in B.C. 302, a Roman squadron of ten ships under L. Cornelius, which had been sent to the assistance of the Thurians, entered the Tarentine gulf, and even approached within sight of the city. The Tarentines, whose hostile disposition was already only half concealed, and who are said to have been the prime movers in organising the confederacy against Rome which led to the Fourth Samnite War ( Zonar. 8.2 .), immediately attacked the Roman ships, sunk four of them, and took one. After this they proceeded to attack the Thurians on account of their having called in the Romans, expelled the Roman garrison, and made themselves masters of the city. (Appian, Samn. 7.1 Zonar. 8.2 .) The Romans sent an embassy to Tarentum to complain of these outrages but their demands being refused, and their ambassador treated with contunmely, they had now no choice but to declare war upon the Tarentines, B.C. 281. (Appian, l.c. § 2 Zonar. l.c. Dio Cass. P. 145.) Nevertheless, the war was at first carried on with little energy but meanwhile the Tarentines, following their usual policy, had invited Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, to their assistance. That monarch readily accepted the overture, and sent over his general Milo to occupy the citadel of Tarentum with 3000 men, while he himself followed in the winter. ( Zonar. 8.2 Plut. Pyrrh. 15 , 16 .)

It is usual to represent the Tarentines as at this period sunk in luxury and effeminacy, so that they were unable to defend themselves, and hence compelled to have recourse to the assistance of Pyrrhus. But there is certainly much exaggeration in this view. They were no doubt accustomed to rely much upon the arms of mercenaries, but so were all the more wealthy cities of Greece and it is certain that the Tarentines themselves (apart from their allies and mercenaries), furnished not only a considerable body of cavalry, but a large force or phalanx of heavy-armed infantry, called the Leucaspids, from their white shields, who are especially mentioned as serving under Pyrrhus at the battle of Asculum. (Dionys. xx. Fr. Didot. 1, 5.) It is unnecessary here to repeat the history of the campaigns of that, monarch. His first successes for a time saved Tarentum itself from the brunt of the war: but when he at length, after his final defeat by Curius, withdrew from Italy (B.C. 274), it was evident that the full weight of the Roman arms would fall upon Tarentum. Pyrrhus, indeed, left Milo with a garrison to defend the city, but the Tarentines themselves were divided into two parties, the one of which was disposed to submit to Rome, while the other applied for assistance to Carthage. A Carthaginian fleet was actually sent to Tarentum, but it arrived too late, for Milo had already capitulated and surrendered the citadel into the hands of the Roman consul Papirius, B.C. 272. ( Zonar. 8.6 Oros. 4.3 .)

From this time Tarentum continued subject to Rome. The inhabitants were indeed left in possession of their own laws and nominal independence, but the city was jealously watched and a Roman legion seems to have been commonly stationed there. (Pol. 2.24.) During the First Punic War the Tarentines are mentioned as furnishing ships to the Romans (Pol. 1.20): but with this exception we hear no more of it till the Second Punic War, when it became a military post of great importance. Hannibal was from an early period desirous to make himself master of the city, which, with its excellent port, would at once have secured his communications with Africa. It is evident also that there was a strong Carthaginian party in the city, who shortly after the battle of Cannae, opened negotiations with Hannibal, and renewed them upon a subsequent occasion ( Liv. 22.61 , 24.13 ) but they were kept down by the presence of the Roman garrison, and it was not till B.C. 212 that Nico and Philemenus, two of the leaders of this party, found an opportunity to betray the city into his hands. ( Liv. 25.8 - 10 Pol. 8.26--33.) Even then the Roman garrison still held the citadel and Hannibal having failed in his attempts to carry this fortress by assault, was compelled to resort to a blockade. He cut it off on [p. 2.1098] the land side by drawing a double line of fortifications across the isthmus, and made himself master of the sea by dragging a part of the fleet which was shut up within the inner port (or Mare Piccolo), across the narrowest part of the isthmus, and launching it again in the outer bay. (Pol. 8.34--36 Liv. 25.11 .) This state of things continued for more than two years, during the whole of which time the Carthaginians continued masters of the city, while the Roman garrison still maintained possession of the citadel, and the besiegers were unable altogether to prevent them from receiving supplies from without, though on one occasion the Romans, having sent a considerable fleet under D. Quintius to attempt the relief of the place, this was met by the Tarentines, and after an obstinate conflict the Roman fleet was defeated and destroyed. ( Liv. 25.15 , 26.39 , 27.3 .) At length in B.C. 209 Fabius determined if possible to wrest from Hannibal the possession of this important post and laid siege to Tarentum while the Carthaginian general was opposed to Marcellus. He himself encamped on the N. of the port, close to the entrance, so that he readily put himself in communication with M. Livius, the commander of the citadel. But while he was preparing his ships and engines for the assault, an accident threw in his way the opportunity of surprising the city, of which he made himself master with little difficulty. The Carthaginian garrison was put to the sword, as well as a large part of the inhabitants, and the whole city was given up to plunder. (Id. 27.12, 15, 16 Plut. Fabuloso 21 - 23 .) Livy praises the magnanimity of Fabius in not carrying off the statues and other works of art in which Tarentum abounded ( Liv. 27.16 Plut. Fabuloso 23 ) but it is certain that he transferred from thence to Rome a celebrated statue of Hercules by Lysippus, which long continued to adorn the Capitol. ( Strab. vi. p.278 Plin. Nat. 34.7. s. 18 .) The vast quantity of gold and silver which fell into the hands of the victors sufficiently bears out the accounts of the great wealth of the Tarentines. (Liv. l.c.

Tarentum had already suffered severely on its capture by Hannibal, and there can be no doubt that it sustained a still severer blow when it was retaken by Fabius. ( Strab. vi. p.278 .) It was at first proposed to degrade it to a condition similar to that of Capua, but this was opposed by Fabius, and the decision was postponed till after the war. ( Liv. 27.25 .) What the final resolution of the senate was, we know not but Tarentum is alluded to at a subsequent period, as still retaining its position of an allied city, “urbs foederata.” ( Liv. 35.16 .) It is certain that it still remained the chief place in this part of Italy, and was the customary residence of the praetor or other magistrate who was sent to the S. of Italy. Thus we find in B.C. 185, L. Postumius sent thither to carry on investigations into the conspiracies that had arisen out of the Bacchanalian rites, as well as among the slave population. ( Liv. 39.29 , 41 .) But it is nevertheless clear that it was (in common with the other Greek cities of this part of Italy) fallen into a state of great decay and hence, in B.C. 123, among the colonies sent out by C. Gracchus, was one to Tarentum, which appears to have assumed the title of Colonia Neptunia. ( Vell. 1.15 Plin. Nat. 3.11. s. dieciséis see Mommsen, in Berichte der Sächsischen Gesellschaft for 1849, pp. 49--51.) According to Strabo this colony became a flourishing one, and the city enjoyed considerable prosperity in his day. But it was greatly fallen from its former splendour, and only occupied the site of the ancient citadel, with a small part of the adjoining isthmus. ( Strab. vi. p.278 .) It was, however, one of the few cities which still retained the Greek language and manners, in common with Neapolis and Rhegium. (Ib. p. 253.) The salubrity of its climate, as well as the fertility of its territory, and, above all, the importance of its port, preserved it from the complete decay into which so many of the cities of Magna Graecia fell under the Roman government. It is repeatedly mentioned during the civil wars between Octavian, Antony, and Sex. Pompeius as a naval station of importance and it was there that in B.C. 36 a fresh arrangement was come to between Octavian and Antony, which we find alluded to by Tacitus as the “Tarentinum foedus.” (Appian, App. BC 2.40 , 5.50 , 80 , 84 , 93 --99 Tac. Ana. 1.10.

Even under the Empire Tarentum continued to be one of the chief seaports of Italy, though in some measure eclipsed by the growing importance of Brundusium. ( Tac. Ana. 14.12 , Hist. 2.83.) An additional colony of veterans was sent there under Nero, but with little effect, most of them having soon again dispersed. ( Tac. Ana. 14.27. ) No subsequent mention of Tarentum is found in history until after the fall of the Western Empire, but it then appears as a considerable town, and bears an important part in the Gothic Wars on account of its strength as a fortress, and the excellence of its port. (Procop. B. G. 3.23, 27, 37, 4.26, 34.) It was taken by Belisarius, but retaken by Totila in A.D. 549, and continued in the hands of the Goths till it was finally wrested from them by Narses. From that time it continued subject to the Byzantine Empire till A.D. 661, when it was taken by the Lombard Romoaldus, duke of Beneventum (P. Diac. 6.1) and afterwards fell successively into the hands of the Saracens and the Greek emperors. The latter did not finally lose their hold of it till it was taken by Robert Guiscard in 1063. It has ever since formed part of the kingdom of Naples. The modern city of Tarentum has a population of about 20,000 souls it is the see of an archbishop, and still ranks as the most important city in this part of Italy. But it is confined to the space occupied by the ancient citadel, the extremity of the peninsula or promontory between the two ports: this is now an island, the low isthmus which connected it with the mainland having been cut through by king Ferdinand I., for the purpose of strengthening its fortifications.

Scarcely any remains are now extant of the celebrated and opulent city of Tarentum. “Never (says Swinburne) was a place more completely swept off the face of the earth.” Some slight remains of an amphitheatre (of course of Roman date) are visible outside the walls of the modern city while within it the convent of the Celestines is built on the foundations of an ancient temple. Even the extent of the ancient city can be very imperfectly determined. A few slight vestiges of the ancient walls are, however, visible near an old church which bears the name of Sta Maria di Murveta, about 2 miles from the gates of the modern city and there is no doubt that the walls extended from thence, on the one side to the Mare Piccolo, on the other side to the outer sea. The general form of the city was thus triangular, having the citadel at the apex, which is now joined to the opposite shore by a [p. 2.1099] bridge of seven arches. This was already the case in Strabo's time, though no mention of it is found at the time of the siege by Hannibal.

The general form and arrangement of the city cannot be better described than they are by Strabo. He says: “While the whole of the rest of the Tarentine gulf is destitute of ports, there is here a very large and fair port, closed at the entrance by a large bridge, and not less than 100 stadia in circumference. [This is beneath the truth: the Mare Piccolo is more than 16 miles (128 stadia) in circuit.] On the side towards the inner recess of the port it forms an isthmus with the exterior sea, so that the city lies upon a peninsula and the neck of the isthmus is so low that ships can easily be drawn over the land from one side to the other. The whole city also lies low, but rises a little towards the citadel. The ancient wall comprises a circuit of great extent but now the greater part of the space adjoining the isthmus is deserted, and only that part still subsists which adjoins the mouth of the port, where also the Acropolis is situated. The portion still remaining is such as to make up a considerable city. It has a splendid Gymnasium, and a good-sized Agora, in which stands the bronze colossal statue of Jupiter, the largest in existence next to that at Rhodes. In the interval between the Agora and the mouth of the port is the Acropolis, which retains only a few remnants of the splendid monuments with which it was adorned in ancient times. For the greater part were either destroyed by the Carthaginians when they took the city, or carried off as booty by the Romans, when they made themselves masters of it by assault. Among these is the colossal bronze statue of Hercules in the Capitol, a work of Lysippus, which was dedicated there as an offering by Fabius Maximus, who took the city.” ( Strab. vi. p.278 .)

In the absence of all extant remains there is very little to be added to the above description. But Polybius, in his detailed narrative of the capture of the city by Hannibal, supplies us with some local names and details. The principal gate on the E. side of the city, in the outer line of walls, seems to have been that called the Temenid Gate ( αἱ πύλαι Τημένιδαι, Pol. 8.30) outside of which was a mound or tumulus called the tomb of Hyacinthus, whose worship had obviously been brought from Sparta. A broad street called the Batheia, or Low Street, led apparently from this gate towards the interior of the city. This from its name may be conjectured to have lain close to the port and the water's edge, while another broad street led from thence to the Agora. (Ib. 31.) Another street called the Soteira ( Σωτεῖρα ) was apparently on the opposite side of the city from the Batheia, and must therefore have adjoined the outer sea. (Ib. 36.) Immediately adjoining the Agora was the Museum ( Μουσεῖον ), a public building which seems to have served for festivals and public banquets, rather than for any purposes connected with its name. (Ib. 27, 29.) There is nothing to indicate the site of the theatre, alluded to by Polybius on the same occasion, except that it was decidedly dentro de the city, which was not always the case. Strabo does not notice it, but it must have been a building of large size, so as to be adapted for the general assemblies of the people, which were generally held in it, as was the case also at Syracuse and in other Greek cities. This is particularly mentioned on several occasions it was there that the Roman ambassadors received the insult which finally led to the ruin of the city. ( Flor. 1.18.3 V. Max. 2.2.5 Apio Samnit. 7.)

Livy inaccurately describes the citadel as standing on lofty cliffs ( “praealtis rupibus,” 25.11): the, peninsula on which it stood rises indeed (as observed by Strabo) a little above the rest of the city, and it. is composed of a rocky soil but the whole site is low, and no part of it rises to any considerable elevation. The hills also that surround the Mare Piccolo are of trifling height, and slope very gradually to its banks, as well as to the shore of the outer sea. There can be no doubt that the, port of Tarentum, properly so called, was the inlet now called the Mare Piccolo or “Little Sea,” but outside this the sea on the S. side of the city forms a bay or roadstead, which affords good shelter to shipping, being partially sheltered from the SW. by the two small islands of S. Pietro y S. Paolo, apparently the same which were known in ancient times as the CHOERADES ( Thuc. 7.33 .)

Tarentum was celebrated in ancient times for the salubrity of its climate and the fertility of its territory. Its advantages in both respects are extolled by Horace in a well-known ode (Carm. 2.6), who says that its honey was equal to that of Hymettus, and its olives to those of Venafrum. Varro also praised its honey as the best in Italy (ap. Macrob. Sat. 2.12). Its oil and wines enjoyed a nearly equal reputation the choicest quality of the latter seems to have been that produced at Aulon (Hor. l.c. Martial, 13.125 Plin. Nat. 14.6. s. 8 ), a valley in the neighbourhood, on the slope of a hill still called Monte Melone [AULON]. But the choicest production of the neighbourhood of Tarentum was its wool, which appears to have enjoyed an acknowledged supremacy over that of all parts of Italy. ( Plin. Nat. 29.2. s. 9 Martial, l.c. Varr. R. R. 2.2.18 Strab. vi. p.284 Col. 7.2.3 .) Nor was this owing solely to natural advantages, as we learn that the Tarentines bestowed the greatest care upon the preservation and improvement of the breed of sheep. ( Col. 7.4 .) Tarentum was noted likewise for its breed of horses, which supplied the famous Tarentine cavalry, which was long noted among the Greeks. Their territory abounded also in various kinds of fruits of the choicest quality, especially pears, figs, and chestnuts, and though not as fertile in corn as the western shores of the Tarentine gulf, was nevertheless well adapted to its cultivation. At the same time its shores produced abundance of shell-fish of all descriptions, which formed in ancient times a favourite article of diet. Even at the present day the inhabitants of Taranto subsist to a great extent upon the shell-fish produced in the Mare Piccolo in a profusion almost incredible. Its Pectens or scallops enjoyed a special reputation with the Roman epicures. (Hor. Sat. 2.4. 34.) But by far the most valuable production of this class was the Murex, which furnished the celebrated purple dye. The Tarentine purple was considered second only to the Tyrian, and for a long time was the most valuable known to the Romans. (Corn. Nep. ap. Plin. 9.39. s. 63.) Even in the time of Augustus it continued to enjoy a high reputation. ( Hor. Ep. 2.1 , 207 .) So extensive were the manufactories of this dye at Tarentum that considerable mounds are still visible on the shore of the Mare Piccolo, composed wholly of broken shells of this species. (Swinburne's Travels, vol. I. p. 239.) [p. 2.1100]

The climate of Tarentum, though justly praised by Horace for its mildness, was generally reckoned soft and enervating, and was considered as in some degree the cause of the luxurious and effeminate habits ascribed to the inhabitants ( “molle Tarentum,” Hor. Sat. 2.4. 34 “imbelle Tarentum,” Id. Ep. 1.7. 45.) It is probable that this charge, as in many other cases, was greatly exaggerated but there is no reason to doubt that the Tarentines, like almost all the other Greeks who became a manufacturing and commercial people, indulged in a degree of luxury far exceeding that of the ruder nations of Central Italy. The wealth and opulence to which they attained in the 4th century B.C. naturally tended to aggravate these evils, and the Tarentines are represented as at the time of the arrival of Pyrrhus enfeebled and degraded by luxurious indulgences, and devoted almost exclusively to the pursuit of pleasure. To such an excess was this carried that we are told the number of their annual festivals exceeded that of the days of the year. (Theopomp. ap. Athen. 4.166 Clearch. ap. Athen. 12.522 Strab. vi. p.280 Eliano, Ael. VH 12.30 .) Juvenal alludes to their love of feasting and pleasure when he calls it “coronatum ac petulans madidumque Tarentum” (6.297). But it is certain, as already observed, that they were not incapable of war: they furnished a considerable body of troops to the army of Pyrrhus and in the sea-fight with the Roman fleet off the entrance of the harbour, during the Second Punic War, they displayed both courage and skill in naval combat. ( Liv. 26.39 .) In the time of their greatest power, according to Strabo, they could send into the field an army of 30,000 foot and 3000 horse, besides a body of 1000 select cavalry called Hipparchs. ( Strab. vi. p.280 .) The Tarentine light cavalry was indeed celebrated throughout Greece, so that they gave name to a particular description of cavalry, which are mentioned under the name of Tarentines ( Ταραντῖνοι ), in the armies of Alexander the Great and his successors and the appellation continued in use down to the period of the Roman Empire. (Arrian, Anab. Identificación. Tact. 4 Pol. 4.77, 11.12 Liv. 35.28 Eliano, Tact. 2. p. 14 Suidas, s. v. Ταραντῖνοι. ) It is probable, however, that these may have been always recruited in great part among the neighbouring Messapians and Sallentines, who also excelled as light horsemen.

With their habits of luxury the Tarentines undoubtedly combined the refinements of the arts usually associated with it, and were diligent cultivators of the fine arts. The great variety and beauty of their coins is, even at the present day, a sufficient proof of this, while the extraordinary numbers of them which are still found in the S. of Italy attest the wealth of the city. Ancient writers also speak of the numbers of pictures, statues, and other works of art with which the city was adorned, and of which. a considerable number were transported to Rome. ( Flor. 1,18 Strab. vi. p.278 Liv. 27.16 .) Among these the most remarkable were the colossal statue of Jupiter, mentioned by Strabo (l.c.), and which was apparently still standing in the Agora in his time the bronze statue of Hercules by Lysippus already noticed and a statue of Victory, which was also carried to Rome, where it became one of the chief ornaments of the Curia Julia. ( D. C. 51.22 .) Nor were the Tarentines deficient in the cultivation of literature. In addition to Archytas, the Pythagorean philosopher, celebrated for his mathematical attainments and discoveries, who long held at Tarentum a place somewhat similar to that of Pericles at Athens ( D. L. 8.4 Suid. s. v. Ἀρχύτας Athen. 12.545 ), Aristoxenus, the celebrated musician and disciple of Aristotle, was a native of Tarentum as well as Rhinthon, the dramatic poet, who became the founder of a new species of burlesque drama which was subsequently cultivated by Sopater and other authors. (Suid. s. v. Ρίνθων. ) It was from Tarentum also that the Romans received the first rudiments of the regular drama, Livius Andronicus, their earliest dramatic poet, having been a Greek of Tarentum, who was taken prisoner when the city fell into their hands. ( Cic. Brut. 18

Polybius tells us that Tarentum retained many traces of its Lacedaemonian origin in local names and customs, which still subsisted in his day. Such was the tomb of Hyacinthus already mentioned (Pol. 8.30): the river Galaesus also was called by them the Eurotas (Ib. 35), though the native name ultimately prevailed. Another custom which he notices as peculiar was that of burying their dead within the walls of the city, so that a considerable space within the walls was occupied by a necropolis. (Ib. 30.) This custom he ascribes to an oracle, but it may have arisen (as was the case at Agrigentum and Syracuse) from the increase of the city having led to the original necropolis being inclosed within the walls.

The name of Tarentum (Taras) was supposed to be derived from a river of the name of TARAS ( Τάρας ), which is noticed by several ancient writers. ( Steph. B. sub voce Τάρας Paus. 10.10.8 .) This is commonly identified with a deep, but sluggish, stream, which flows into the sea about 4 miles W. of the entrance of the harbour of Tarentum, and is still called Tara, though corrupted by the peasantry into Fiume di Terra. (Romanelli, vol. i. p. 281 Swinburne, vol. i. p. 271.) The more celebrated stream of the GALAESUS flowed into the Mare Piccola or harbour of Tarentum on its N. shore: it is commonly identified with the small stream called Le Citrezze, an old church near which still retains the name of Sta Maria di Galeso. [GALAESUS] Another locality in the immediate neighbourhood of Tarentum, the name of which is associated with that of the city by Horace, is AULON a hill or ridge celebrated for the excellence of its wines. This is identified by local topographers, though on very slight grounds, with a sloping ridge on the seashore about 8 miles SE. of Tarentum, a part of which bears the name of Monte Melone, supposed to be a corruption of Aulone [AULON]. A more obscure name, which is repeatedly mentioned in connection with Tarentum, is that of SATURIUM ( Σατύριον ). From the introduction of this name in the oracle alleged to have been given to Phalanthus ( Strab. vi. p.279 ), it seems probable that it was an old native name, but it is not clear that there ever was a town or even village of the name. It is more probable that it was that of a tract or district in the neighbourhood of Tarentum. Stephanus of Byzantium distinctly calls it χώρα πλήσιον Τάραντος (s. v. Σατύριον ) and the authority of Servius, who calls it a ciudad (civitas) near Tarentum, is not worth much in comparison. There was certainly no ciudad of the name in historical times. Virgil applies the epithet “Saturium” (as an adjective) to Tarentum itself (Geory. 2.197 Serv. ad loc.: many commentators, however, consider “saturi” from “satur” [p. 2.1101] to be the true reading), and Hrace speaks of “Satureianus cabellus” as equivalent to Tarentine. ( Sat. i. 6. 59.) The memory of the locality is preserved by a watch-tower on the coast, about seven miles SE. of Tarentum, which is still called Torre di Saturo (Romanelli, vol. i. p. 294 Zannoni Carta del Regno di Napoli).

(Concerning the history and ancient institutions of Tarentum, see Heyne, Opuscula, vol. ii. pp. 217--232 and Lorentz, de Civitate Veterum Tarentinorum, 4to. Lips. 1833. The present state and localities are described by Swinburne, vol. i. pp. 225--270 Keppel Craven, Southern Tour, pp. 174--190 and Romandelli, vol. I. pp. 282--289 but from the absence of existing remains, the antiquities of Tarentum have scarcely received as much attention as they deserve.)


Tarentum - History

After St. Clement’s closed in 2006, one of Follieri’s numerous corporations — CV12 216 W. Ninth Avenue LLC — bought the property in January 2007.

Men from the Vatican

According to the U.S. Attorney’s Office, from June 2005 through June 2007, Follieri ran a fraudulent real estate investment scheme, claiming that he had close connections with the Vatican — enabling him to purchase Catholic church properties at prices well below their market value.

He allegedly told people he formally was appointed by the Vatican to manage its financial affairs. Investigators say he raised investment capital for an “Italian office” that didn’t exist, including $800,000 on bogus “engineering reports” and other falsified business expenses.

Federal prosecutors say they have ample evidence that he spent as much as $6 million from his investors on a jet-setting lifestyle for himself, a girlfriend and others. The girlfriend is said to be actress Anne Hathaway, who dated Follieri for four years. Tabloid reports say the pair split last week.

Follieri is charged with various counts of conspiracy, wire fraud and money laundering. If he receives the maximum sentence, Follieri would spend life in prison and pay millions of dollars in fines.

A federal district court judge set Follieri’s bail at $21 million — $16 million must be in cash or property. Follieri also must relinquish his passport and get five other people to co-sign, assuming responsibility if he tries to escape. At press time, he was still in federal custody.

Undervalued

When Follieri’s company bought the former St. Clement’s property from the Catholic Diocese of Pittsburgh in January 2007, it was valued at $407, 000 — $337,000 for the building and $70,000 for the 23,000 square feet of adjoining land. Follieri, though, paid only $252,000 for it, according to Allegheny County records.

Follieri’s company also bought St. Patrick’s in Alpsville, Allegheny County, said the Rev. Ron Lengwin, diocesan spokesman.

“We were prepared to sell them (other unused properties), but it never got that far,” Lengwin said.

Follieri’s representatives did not tell diocesan officials they had ties to the Vatican, said Lengwin.

“Any church official could tell who was from the Vatican and who was not,” he said.

The property was sold to Follieri at the reduced price because “when you sell a piece of property that no one else wants, you have to sell it to the person who wants to buy it for what they’re willing to pay,” Lengwin said.

By the end of the year, the property was back on the market for $425,000.

The marketing agent trying to sell it, James Kelly of Grubb & Ellis in Pittsburgh, said he could not comment, as part of his contract with Follieri’s company.

Una recepcionista reenvió varias llamadas a la centralita principal de Follieri Group & # 8217 a un número que no funcionaba.

Bill Rossey, gerente del municipio de Tarentum, dijo que había oído hablar de Follieri pero que no sabía que era dueño de la antigua propiedad de St. Clement y no había escuchado nada sobre lo que podría sucederle ahora.

Según el personal del Departamento de Confiscación de Activos de los Alguaciles de los EE. UU. Otras opciones incluyen un acuerdo de declaración de culpabilidad para vender las propiedades y liquidar los activos para pagar la restitución u otras sanciones.

En una última estimación, el edificio necesita alrededor de $ 400,000 en obras antes de que pueda usarse nuevamente, incluido el techo y la eliminación de moho, dijo el historiador católico local Charles & # 8220Skip & # 8221 Culleiton de New Kensington.

A los antiguos feligreses y católicos locales probablemente les gustaría que el edificio se usara para brindar algún servicio social o para otro propósito que pudiera mejorar la comunidad, que es lo que la corporación Follieri & # 8217s prometió originalmente, dijo Culleiton.

& # 8220 Eso probablemente haría que (feligreses, católicos) se sintieran mejor con todo el asunto & # 8221 Culleiton.


Ver el vídeo: The Ancient History of Tarentum (Mayo 2022).